Matthew Perry & Tucker Carlson: Two Approaches to Addiction (Part 2)

By Edith Hathaway © 2023

The senses (horses) desire pleasurable things. The mind (reins) is not exercising restraint on the senses (horses). The intellect (charioteer) submits to the pull of the reins (mind). So in the materially bound state, the bewildered soul does not direct the intellect in the proper direction.

Chapter 3, Verse 43 – Bhagavad Gita

In the Vedic chart the mind is viewed from the Moon, which is considered much more important in Eastern philosophy and astrology than the Sun.  Thus, the study of the Moon-ruled Cancer Ascendant chart provides an excellent opportunity to observe the workings of the Moon, as ruler over the both the physical and emotional realms.  As the Bhagavad Gita reminds us, only the mind can rein in the senses.  The charioteer cannot be successful otherwise, nor the soul.

Tucker Carlson and Matthew Perry were born three months apart, Carlson on May 16, 1969 and Perry on Aug. 19, 1969.  Both became public figures in their 20s, Carlson as a print journalist who entered television journalism in 2000, and Perry as an actor in television and feature films from age 14.  Astrologically, both have Cancer Ascendant, which symbolizes the family, the nation, patriotism and tribal loyalties. Both have Saturn debilitated in Aries in the 10th house and Jupiter in Virgo in the 3rd house of writing. Both men are highly effective speakers and writers, and much has been documented about each of them.  Both men have also dealt with addiction issues and have important life themes regarding the mother (also the Moon).  In Carlson’s case, his biological mother had alcohol and drug abuse issues, and she abandoned the family when he was six years old.  For Perry, his parents split when he was six months old and he went with his mother to East coast Canada, while his father lived on the West coast USA.

Sadly, Matthew Perry died Oct. 28, 2023 at age 54 of an apparent drowning in his jacuzzi, which I covered in a previous article (Part 1). His death was probably related to his lifelong addiction issues with drugs and alcohol, though the official cause of death is still pending.

Six months earlier, on April 24, 2023, Tucker Carlson was suddenly fired from his nightly news show on Fox. No reason was cited by Fox, and Carlson was not expecting it.  His show was by far the most popular and successful show on cable news television, as measured by number of viewers. His fans reeled in disbelief at the death of their favorite news show and many cancelled their subscriptions to Fox. This was obviously far less tragic than Perry’s sudden death, though initially more puzzling, at least as a financial decision by Fox. But since then, Carlson has continued to reach large audiences with his own episodes on X (formerly Twitter), and through many public speaking engagements.

Earlier on in his life Tucker Carlson had also struggled with alcohol addiction.  At one point he was downing four to five shots of vodka for breakfast (coincidentally Perry’s favorite alcoholic beverage), until one Saturday morning in August 2002 he suddenly decided to stop drinking.  He went “cold turkey” and for at least the next four months he admits to having the typical symptoms of tremors and sweats that accompany alcohol withdrawal.  But he did it, because he was overwhelmed with the realization that otherwise it was going to ruin everything in his life that he loved and cared about, including his young wife Susan, their expanding family, and his burgeoning career in journalism, following in his father’s footsteps.  He later also gave up cigarettes and moved to nicotine chewing gum.

We will explore what was going on with the planets at the time this happened for Tucker Carlson, and how factors in his astrological chart could explain how and why he was able to conquer his addictions at age 33, while Matthew Perry spent upwards of $9 million over several decades trying to do this, documenting the torturous journey in his book Friends, Lovers, and the Big Terrible Thing (2022).  Perry describes how he was unable to avoid the temptation of alcohol or drugs (mostly prescription painkillers), even after seeing a therapist twice a week for 30 years, going to rehab clinics 15 times, 65 times in detox treatments, and 14 surgeries. Over the years his weight had fluctuated between 128 lbs. and 225 lbs, depending on his alcohol or drug intake.  More recently, he claimed he had been sober since early 2021, but he had made this claim many times before.  

One of the key differences between these charts is that Tucker’s natal Saturn, though also debilitated in Aries, receives cancellation (Neecha Bhanga) – which means that after initial setbacks there is gradual improvement and at times even great improvement.  This means that the person can benefit from Saturn’s influence in the chart to view clearly what Saturn rules over: Truth, Reality, Karma, and discipline, including the ability to use self-discipline when needed. Saturn also rules over duty, longevity, death, adversity, sorrow, separation, endurance, and persistence.

Neecha Bhanga occurs when the planetary ruler of the debilitation sign (Aries) or its opposite sign (Libra) are in an angular house from either the Ascendant or the Moon. This would be either Mars or Venus, respectively. There are some other corrections that can happen in the Navamsha chart, according to the rules of Vedic astrology.  Tucker Carlson’s Saturn is Neecha Bhanga due to Mars, the ruler of Aries, situated in an angular house from the Moon.  In this case, natal Mars is in the 7th house opposite natal Moon.

A brief review of how to read a South Indian chart.

His Moon in turn is exalted in Taurus, which adds strength to Moon as Ascendant lord, and is additionally helped by being in the 11th house, with its sign lord Venus in turn exalted in Pisces in the 9th house of Bhagya, or good fortune. Carlson’s Moon also receives an aspect (influence) from benevolent Jupiter in Virgo.

“There are clearly biochemical reasons for depression. I’m not pretending that’s not true, but for the overwhelming majority of people anxiety and depression are signs that you’re not living in the right way.  If you burn your finger on the stove, and someone says to you, ‘I have a painkiller that will make that go away, so the next time you touch the stove you won’t feel anything,’ you’d say wait a second! Maybe your body is telling you that your flesh is burning off and you shouldn’t touch the stove.  Maybe it’s a sign that you should change your behavior.  And that used to be much more obvious…. [T]he way you live matters.”

        Tucker Carlson quoted in Tucker, by Chadwick Moore, 2023, p. 58.

Carlson recounts how he suddenly quit drinking one Saturday morning in August 2002. He was 33 yrs. old and his wife would give birth to their 4th child in 12 days. There is a good chance it was Sat. Aug. 3 or 10, 2002 (see chart further below), as transiting Sun and Mars were in his Cancer Ascendant along with tr. Jupiter exalted in Cancer.  (Jupiter entered Cancer July 6, 2002 for 13 months.  He married towards the end of the previous Jupiter transit in Cancer, on Aug. 10, 1991.  Their four children were born in 1995, 1997, 1999, and 2002.)  Sun, Mars, and Jupiter are all excellent planets for the Cancer Ascendant person. They give encouragement, strength, and bravery to meet life challenges – in this case, to quit drinking – and thereby prosper, especially with the Jupiter influence, as a major benefic planet and lord of the 9th house of Bhagya (good fortune).  Jupiter is also Digbala (best possible angle) on the Ascendant, whether it occurs natally or by transit.

On Aug. 10, 2002 tr. Mars was within one degree combust the Sun in Cancer, so that could give a person even more bravado, especially with a Neecha Bhanga Mars corrected by its contact with Jupiter.  Carlson was in Rahu-Sun period from Aug. 6, 2002, and just coming out of Rahu-Venus (Aug. 6, 1999 to Aug. 6, 2002), a period which brought him his first successes in television journalism.  Astrologically this success is reflected by his exalted natal Venus in Pisces conjoined with Rahu in the 9th house of publishing, opposite natal Jupiter and Ketu in Virgo, with Jupiter aspecting its own house, the 9th House. With both major benefic planets on the travel and publishing axis, along with Rahu and Ketu, we see the possibility of abundance and/or excess in these arenas of life, amplified by Rahu, and made somewhat more unpredictable by the effect of the eclipse axis in general.

“Indeed, a large part of Tucker’s appeal was his convention-defying unpredictability in both words and action.”     Tucker, by Chadwick Moore, 2023, p. 119.

With his exalted natal Venus, the Venus sub-period would have to bring something more extraordinary in this life, and it directly preceded his sobriety. Venus exalted in Pisces also points towards a more spiritual or religious orientation as a positive influence. With Rahu earlier in the sign, it might veer from the traditional, and Carlson has eventually criticized the Episcopal Church in which he was raised.

One’s religious, philosophical point of view or training is reflected by the 9th house in the chart, the 9th house lord, and the status of 9th lord and Jupiter.  In this case, the 9th lord is also Jupiter, and both Carlson and Perry have natal Jupiter in Virgo opposite the 9th house, thus benefiting all the affairs of the 9th house, and increasing the Bhagya (good fortune).  However, Carlson has the big advantage, as his Jupiter is close (within 4’ orb) to the Stationary Direct degree, giving it added power.  Natal Jupiter also aspects Carlson’s Sun, Moon and Mercury in Taurus, which is a very positive influence for the Cancer Ascendant chart.  Even natal Mercury (the communicator) gets added strength from being very close (within 1′ orb) to its Stationary Retrograde degree.

Further, he has exalted Venus in the 9th house, lord of the three planets in Taurus, notably his Ascendant lord Moon in turn exalted in Taurus.  The one slight detractor is that Jupiter and Venus are on the Rahu-Ketu axis, with Jupiter within 1° 15’ orb from Ketu.  This has caused some of Carlson’s unpredictability, as noted above, but it has not destabilized him over the years, including through his 16-year Jupiter Dasha, which ended Jan. 17, 2022 and marked the start of his 19-year Saturn Dasha.

Perry, on the other hand, has his 9th house hemmed in between two classical malefic planets: Rahu in Aquarius and Saturn in Aries.  This is called a Papakartari yoga, and tends to block action from that house (or planets in that house).  It requires greater effort for the person to counteract the malefic influences.  One has to extricate oneself mightily in order to correct the situation.  Perry’s Moon receives no aspect from Jupiter, but only the opposition from a powerfully malefic Saturn debilitated in Aries, made even stronger by being 1’ of arc from its Stationary Retrograde degree.  As discussed, this Saturn receives no cancellation from its debilitation in Aries. There is improvement in his Navamsha chart, but Saturn still has an overwhelming influence over the Moon. Navamsha Moon is in Saturn-owned Aquarius opposite Saturn in Leo in the 9th house.

Coincidentally, in August 2002, when Carlson was moving abruptly into sobriety, the movie Serving Sara was released.  Matthew Perry played the romantic lead, while also working on the TV series Friends.  During the production of the film Perry was struggling with drug and alcohol addiction, taking Xanax, Methadone, and drinking a quart of vodka a day. (This article contains a photo of Matthew Perry taken on August 7, 2002.)  Filming was delayed for two months while Perry went to rehab.  He later paid the studio $645,000 in damages along with re-recording most of his lines, as they were mostly incoherent. He considered the amount “a small price to save my life,” and he describes more about the experience in his 2022 book Friends, Lovers, and the Big, Terrible Thing: A Memoir:

“Every day I would show up to set, pass out in my chair, wake up to do a scene, stumble to set, then just basically scream into a camera for two minutes.”

Aside from the advantages Carlson has in his astrological chart, including with his corrected (Neecha Bhanga) Saturn, he was not dealing with tr. Neptune closely opposite his Ascendant, as Perry was.  With his Ascendant at 17:15 Cancer, Perry had months of tr. Neptune approaching its Stationary Retrograde degree at 16:58 Capricorn on June 2, 2002.  Neptune is closely associated with intoxicants of any kind, along with dreams, clouds, illusions, and also ideals.  So here we have a person addicted to drugs and alcohol with Neptune closely impacting his chart. This means that unfortunately the beneficial transits of Sun, Mars and Jupiter in his Cancer Ascendant could not help Perry as much as they did Carlson.  (Neptune is not an integral part of classic Vedic astrology, but in my opinion it carries more weight when it is within a few degrees of an important point or planet in the chart, as in this case.)

Fortunately, Serving Sara did get produced and released Aug. 23, 2002, and though Perry said he was very proud of his work in it, the movie was not well reviewed, even with Perry going out of his way to do publicity for it “to make amends.”  He was in Saturn-Venus period from March 25, 2000 to May 26, 2003. Natal Saturn aspects his natal Venus in Gemini in the 12th house of loss, its sign lord Mercury in turn in the 2nd house in Leo closely conjoined unpredictable Ketu, with Sun earlier in the sign.  Natal Venus receives aspects from natal Mars and Saturn (both classical malefic planets), and at that time tr. Saturn was mostly in Taurus in the 8th house from his natal Moon in Libra.  Called Ashtama Shani, tr. Saturn in the 8th house from Moon or Ascendant can bring losses.

For Carlson, the long transit of Saturn in Taurus (on his natal Sun, Moon, and Mercury in Taurus) had ended July 26, 2002 when tr. Saturn entered Gemini.  While in Taurus, tr. Saturn had also pressed down on the Cancer Ascendant of both men, so tr. Saturn moving into Gemini and tr. Jupiter into Cancer the same month offered a reprieve.  Note too that from Gemini, tr. Saturn was aspecting the 2nd house of each of them.  This is the house of financial income as well as speech, eating and drinking – that which comes in and out of the mouth.  So there was pressure there too, but the shift of signs for tr. Jupiter and tr. Saturn in July 2002 offered both an opportunity and an opening for the Cancer Ascendant person.

The August 2002 Shift for Tucker Carlson

The above chart is approximate and accurate within a few weeks.  In my estimation, Carlson probably acted on his sudden decision to go “cold turkey” on Saturday, Aug. 10, 2002, with the tr. Moon and Mercury both in his 2nd house of eating, drinking, and speech.   Where the Moon is situated in the chart shows the focus of the mind, and Leo is always the 2nd house for Cancer Ascendant, with Leo giving importance to self-worth and self-identity.  It was then four days into his Rahu-Sun period.  He has said it was a Saturday morning in Aug. 2002, and given some other factors it cannot be at the end of the month.  Note how all the classic Vedic planets fall inside of Rahu and Ketu.  This is called a Kala Sarpa yoga, or a Time-Snake yoga.  Events tend to be more intensely dramatic at this time, and we have already reviewed the big boost that tr. Sun, Mars and Jupiter in Cancer would give to the Cancer Ascendant person.

In Carlson’s case, he embarked on a path of sobriety that has lasted for over 21 years as of Dec. 2023, whereas for Perry, the path to sobriety was broken again and again, with ever more public stances to help other addicts, opening his own clinic for two years, talking about addiction as “a disease,” and writing a book about it that was published Nov. 1, 2022.  His death occurred almost exactly one year later and is still mostly unexplained, except that he drowned and medics said he had not been in his hot tub for very long and his body was not waterlogged.  Astrologically, we observe the unrelenting pressure of his uncorrected Saturn opposing (confronting) his natal Moon in Libra – a mind that he felt compelled to improve and reform, but never seemed to figure out how to remove “the monster” living in his brain:

My mind is out to kill me, and I know it. I am constantly filled with a lurking loneliness, a yearning, a clinging to the notion that something outside of me will fix me. But I had had all that the outside had to offer!”

“It’s not an ego journey or anything like that.  It’s the cold, hard truth about being an addict. Who made it. Who has to make it every day. The work you have to put in every day to save yourself from this monster that lives in your brain is a baffling thing to live with.”

Matthew Perry, Friends, Lovers, and the Big, Terrible Thing: A Memoir, 2022.

Addiction – a Form of Slavery

Generally the mind is considered habitual unless we train it otherwise.  The question is: Which habits are positive and which are negative? Eastern philosophy teaches that we do have control over the content of our mind. The major philosophers of Western civilization have often followed this to embrace the concept of free will, notwithstanding efforts in recent decades to alter the chemistry of the brain through various treatments, including drugs, and in the macrocosm – through propagandistic media control and drug trafficking, among others.  For example, Big Pharma accounts for at least 75% of television advertising. In this way the public is saturated with messages about various pharmaceutical drugs that will solve all our problems or give us some big life-saving advantages.

In Vedic astrology, the capacity to train the mind out of habitual negative patterns is associated with a well-placed Moon in the chart, and/or with corrections to an afflicted Moon.  There is also a vast system of Vedic remedies that can be used to work with imbalances. This is doubly important for the Cancer Ascendant person, as we are observing here.  In Perry’s case, we see a clear cut case of natal Moon badly afflicted by Saturn, and though there is improvement in the Navamsha chart, Saturn still has an overwhelming influence over the Moon, as noted earlier. This Saturn provided a Dhana yoga of wealth but did little to help free Perry from the weight of his obsessions.  However, it did enable him to pay for decades of expensive treatments, rehab, detox, and surgeries, as well as nearly $650 K in damages for film production costs when he suddenly needed two months of rehab.

We generally understand slavery to mean that one has no personal control over one’s life, that someone else owns you and has control over you and your destiny. In the case of addiction, the mind has become a slave to some intoxicant, which in turn has become the master of your mind.   But according to the ancient wisdom teachings of the The Bhagavad Gita, the mind holds the reins to the senses (the horses), and that no one but you is truly in charge of your life —  unless you hand the reins over to someone else or refuse to believe you have any control (i.e. access to the reins) to achieve a non-intoxicated reality, or whatever the goal is in terms of leading a peaceful and rewarding life.

However, if ancient wisdom has been shunted aside and the prevailing modality is that addiction is a “disease” and “not your fault” – as Perry learned in all his 1000s of therapy sessions and AA meetings, then what is your next move?  The pressure is off to get to the goal and maintain it, now that you accept that it is not your fault, and you even have a large influential medical organization on your side. The American Medical Association (AMA) defined addiction as a disease since 1956.

Since it is a disease, as Perry said, one cannot be accused of “weakness or character flaws.”  Also, one must search vigorously for treatments for this disease – rehabs, detox, methadone, and then surgery to fix the damaged body parts. Fortunately, he had the funds to pay for all this. Then he could write about it and discuss it publicly and try to help others, which has a redeeming effect. But then what if it doesn’t help him to achieve sobriety? That may in turn diminish the effectiveness of his message, no matter how sympathetic and likable he is.

In this case Perry is an actor well loved and admired for his 10-year stint in Friends (1994-2004), where much of the time he played a character who was often insecure and lacking in self-confidence, even if he had a high-paying job as a corporate data analyst. The problem was he hated his job, so there was almost always something to pity about Chandler Bing; and people enjoyed his self-deprecating humor, which the actor readily admits was a close reflection of his own personality. When he first saw the script in 1994 he knew he could play this role well since it was such a close carbon copy of himself.   Also he was witty, good looking, and had a gift for comedic timing. He became very skilled at discussing his problems in public, and was richly rewarded for doing so, both as Chandler Bing in Friends, and as himself, an endlessly struggling addict, though rich and famous – thus one with an ability to reach a large audience.

When Perry died suddenly in late Oct. 2023, it was known that he had often spoken about how people would be “shocked, but not surprised.” So he was often telegraphing his own death, and broadcasting his desire to be remembered as someone who knew how to help other addicts and someone who would do so whenever asked. He wanted to use his fame for something good, since his addictions had sent him repeatedly into major downward spirals, so much so that he cried and cried just reading his own book about all of it in 2022.

Again astrologically, we look at his debilitated Saturn and see it as a trouble-maker in the chart.  But does it guarantee that someone with this chart would go in this direction and have this same destiny? Yes, there is a map of destiny, but one still has the freedom to choose which level of manifestation will occur.  This person will have clever and witty speech, and the person will also have to focus on mastering control over their mind and their speech, as we all do, but in this case slaying the recurring dragons in the mind and seeing them not as “monsters” who control us, but as negative thought forms we can learn to drive out of the mind, once again seizing control of the reins over the wayward senses.

Clearly Perry’s attitude and his inability to conquer his addictions keeps drawing our attention astrologically to the condition of his natal Moon, as described earlier, along with the condition of the 2nd house, the house of eating, drinking and speaking.  If there are afflictions to the natal Moon and/or the 2nd house, that does not mean the person is doomed to become a slave to his mind and to the obsessions running though the mind, such as the desire for drugs or alcohol.  But it can become a neverending cycle of excuses if the person never changes his behavior or takes responsibility for his actions.

In Perry’s case, he made a major point of saying he was taking responsibility for achieving sobriety.  But then predictably he would repeat the addictive pattern that he said helped him to feel “normal” and “good.”  If Perry was introduced publicly as “an ex-addict,” he would quickly correct the speaker to say he was “an addict.” This was further perpetuated because he was accustomed to receiving praise and laughter from his fans.  So if his approach to addiction was attacked (as with Peter Hitchens), he immediately started with his ad hominem attacks on Hitchens, unable to acknowledge the possibility of other approaches to addiction worth considering.  His was the current “approved narrative” and the only correct one, even if this policy has not succeeded in reducing the problem and may well be causing it to increase.

The Debate for and against Free Will

In Dec. 2013 Perry was one of three panelists on BBC Newsnight discussing Drug Courts.  The other two included Peter Hitchens, British journalist and anti-drug campaigner and Baroness Meacham, chair of the UK All-Party Parliamentary Group on Drug Policy Reform.  The Baroness was known as a strong advocate for drug legalization.  She and Perry agreed that drug addiction is not a crime but a health problem, and they touted how the American Medical Association (AMA) had made that designation back in 1956.  Hitchens was not impressed by an AMA decision and pointed out that many of them had been proven wrong.  Hitchens has been critical of the whole trend and emphasis in the West to decriminalize drugs and drug addicts, as outlined in his 2012 book, The War We Never Fought: The British Establishment’s Surrender to Drugs.  

Tucker Carlson was obviously not present for this debate, and though he is known to be compassionate towards others with addiction issues, he made it clear by various statements and by his own example that he believes in free will.

Here is one of the most important segments from the Dec. 2013 debate between Hitchens and Perry on BBC Newsnight:

Perry:  I’m a drug addict, and so – I’m a person that, if I have a drink, I can’t stop. And so, it would be following your ideology that I’m choosing to do that.

Hitchens:  That’s exactly it. It’s not my ideology, it’s my belief. Yes, you do choose.

Perry:  And that’s the belief that you wrote in your book.  Correct?

Hitchens:  You have a choice, whether you drink or not. You have a choice.”

Perry:  But your book is the only book in modern times that has this ideology.  So doesn’t that teach you something?

Hitchens:  Quite often unfashionable ideas are unfashionable because they’re unpopular with influential people.  It doesn’t bother me. You tell me – what is the objective diagnosis that establishes the existence of addiction in the human body?

Perry:  It’s obsession of your mind and an allergy of your body. So this is what happens to me. I start thinking about alcohol, I can’t stop.  I’m in control of the first drink, and so I do all these things to protect myself from having that first drink.  But once I have that drink, the allergy of the body kicks in, the obsession of the mind kicks in.  This is all documented, alcoholism proofed.  Then I can’t stop after that. 

Hitchens: (looking visibly disturbed as Perry gives his definition of alcoholism) What’s the objective physical proof of this inability to stop?… It’s will power.

Perry:  No, it’s not. (Meacham vocally supports Perry on his every point.)

Hitchens:  People constantly stop, both drinking and taking drugs.

Perry: (talking over Hitchens) You’re just a person who’s talking who’s wrong.

Hitchens:  Since we have classified drug-takers as a medical problem and not a crime, we have had more and more of a problem [with drug addicts and crime]…. The situation has only gotten worse…. We need an effective deterrent criminal justice system.    [end of segment]

The live audience support was clearly for Matthew Perry, who often smiled in disdain at Hitchens, while Meacham was the Greek chorus assuring Hitchens he was wrong on almost everything.  Perry’s fans vehemently disagreed with Hitchens for opposing the actor, including on social media and even 10 years later following Perry’s sudden death.  There could be no opposing position that was tolerable.  That is to say, who cares about The Bhagavad Gita?  We know better.


[See also: Matthew Perry: A Lifelong Battle with Saturn (Part 1)]

UPDATE DEC. 11, 2023:     (Tr. Mercury is powerful, about to turn Stationary Retrograde Dec. 12, 2023, echoing the same Mercury status in Tucker Carlson’s birth chart just as he launches his major new media network.)

UPDATE: DEC. 15, 2023:  (Finally the cause of Perry’s death is revealed.  Autopsy notes “acute effects of ketamine,” as well as drowning, coronary artery disease, and the effects of buprenorphine. The drugs had to be prescribed or were obtained illicitly, notably the ketamine.)

UPDATE: DEC. 16, 2023:   On the tragedy of Matthew Perry and the profound American addiction to drugs | peckford42 (    Dec. 16, 2023    (Alex Berenson discusses Perry’s addictive habits and how it reflects on drug use in the U.S.)


From the author


  • The Bhagavad Gita, Chapter 2, Verses 58-64; Chapter 3, Verse 43.
  • Peter Hitchens, The War We Never Fought: The British Establishment’s Surrender to Drugs, 2012.  (The author, a conservative, has long been critical of the whole trend and emphasis in the West to decriminalize drugs and drug addicts.  In more recent statements in 2023, Hitchens reiterates how these policies, including unlimited mass migration, have only made the problem worse, along with the increasing homelessness.)
  • Chadwick Moore, Tucker, 2023. (A biography of Tucker Carlson.)
  • Matthew Perry, Friends, Lovers, and the Big, Terrible Thing: A Memoir, 2022. (Autobiography.)

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 Copyright © 2023 by Edith Hathaway. All rights reserved.