Copyright © 2010 by Edith Hathaway
“There is no America. There is no democracy. There is only IBM and ITT and AT & T and DuPont, Dow, Union Carbide and Exxon. Those are the nations of the world today. The world is a business … and there is not a single law on the books to stop them !” 
Paddy Chayefsky, 1974
INTRODUCTION: Nearly 50 years ago, the world emerged out of an era of excessive nationalism and religious zeal into one of increasing dominance of corporate conglomerates over nation-states, even if the old themes still linger and provide convenient reasons for justifying wars and conflicts.
Corporate dominance has become a global phenomenon from the era ushered in by the Jupiter-Saturn conjunction in Capricorn in Feb. 1961, and one that was perhaps initially intended to solve problems generated by the previous era. No longer just an aberration or an anomaly, by 2010 it now becomes a question of which nation-states will survive and thrive. My predictions on this topic relate to the 238-year cycle during which the 20-year Jupiter-Saturn conjunctions fall predominantly in sidereal earth signs. This occurred for the first time in 675 years starting from Feb. 18, 1961 with the Jupiter-Saturn conjunction at 1:52 Capricorn. (One element predominates with these conjunctions for an average of 220 years, varying between 178 and 258 years. The previous element featured was sidereal fire.) The Feb. 1961 conjunction was so pivotal in setting the tone for the rest of the era, that much can be referenced from this date and time, set for the capitals of each nation-state (Jupiter), and confirmed or denied by the strength of each national chart. (Nations reorganized or formed post-Feb. 1961 are mostly beyond the scope of this article, though I have included three of them: Algeria, Singapore, and the United Arab Emirates. Important information can also be gleaned by inserting the 1961 conjunction, as well as successive JU-SA conjunctions and oppositions into a valid national chart. Nations with multiple capital cities may have more confused and turbulent histories, but this too is another topic.) Saturn is the transnational corporation by virtue of its consolidation of ownership. Saturn also rules over democracy, but is outweighed here by the symbol of corporations, whose motives for ever-expanding profits often lack any real concern for democracy or indeed any long-term societal or environmental view. But the appearance of promoting democracy is useful to corporate goals. Nations surviving this trend may still view themselves as democracies, even if not much of it actually exists. Nations giving up some sovereignty within trading blocks, such as the European Union, are likely to do well. Each nation-state (Jupiter) increasingly faces issues of survival and wellbeing alongside greater and greater consolidation among governments, banks, and corporations (Saturn), which often ignore local and national laws, including tax laws, with minimal penalty. Looking back over the first 50 years of the new era from Feb. 1961, we observe how it has already changed from the preceding one, and continues to do so. 
BACKGROUND: Just over 120 years ago, on July 2, 1890, the U.S. Congress passed the Sherman Anti-Trust Act. This was the first such U.S. law enacted to protect citizens against unfair competition through abusive monopolies of markets in any area. (Jupiter was debilitated in Capricorn, and Saturn was in Leo, the most tension-filled aspect between any two planets, called Shashtashtaka, a mutual 6 – 8 house relationship.) Controversial and disliked by corporate advocates, the Sherman act was condemned by American economist Alan Greenspan as “stifling innovation and harming society.” It became more and more challenged after 1961, but operated reasonably well up until that time, notably with the 1958 ruling against the American-owned United Fruit Company for its monopoly of the banana markets in Central America. UFC was the largest single employer and landholder in Guatemala, and its virtual monopoly of transportation and bananas was seen as an increasing threat to Guatemala’s sovereignty. 
United Fruit Co. was ordered to divest its company to 1/3rd its size, and did so, notably in Guatemala, but expanded into the business of natural gas and petroleum exploration in Colombia, Panama, and Ecuador. Some 50 years later, on Jan. 21, 2010 came another landmark decision by the U.S. Supreme Court, in many ways reversing what the Sherman Act aimed to achieve, strengthening corporate dominance while reducing citizens’ rights in a democracy. In Citizens United v Federal Election Commission, the Court held that corporations could now fund independent political broadcasts in candidate elections, and that this was their right under the First Amendment. The free speech rights of corporations and their ability to influence the outcome of elections were dramatically expanded. At the same time, major cutbacks and constraints on investigative journalism have been impeding the Fourth Estate from doing its job. All of this not only threatens to change the American political landscape forever in favor of the corporation, but confirms a trend coming into full force since 1961, and follows closely on the heels of American taxpayers’ bailout of large banks and insurance companies, saving them from economic ruin in 2008-2009, at the expense of the taxpayer. Many of those same companies have soared back to prominence with larger than ever profits, J.P. Morgan Chase and Goldman Sachs, among others.
This is the backdrop, preceded by a U.S. Supreme Court ruling (May 10, 1886) that turned out to be a pivotal landmark decision for corporations: Santa Clara County v. Southern Pacific Railroad Company.  In a case about taxation of railroad properties, it held that corporations are entitled to protection under the Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, and that they had the rights of “individuals,” though they had the legal entity of a corporation, with its limited liabilities, etc. The highest courts now often cite this law, as with Citizens United v Federal Election Commission on Jan. 21, 2010, clearing the way for money alone to influence both elections and policy. The only hope for a reversal is to amend the U.S. Constitution, stripping corporations of the legal status of “personhood.” But the astrological patterns, mainly of Jupiter-Saturn, do not favor such a reversal.
General Predictions (thru 2020): The rate of recovery from the economic crisis will vary from country to country, lasting through spring 2012. (Details are provided under the individual charts.) In the years from spring 2012 thru spring 2016, the Jovian years (within the 60-year Jupiter cycle) are generally fortunate, and parallel the years 1952 through 1956, all relatively peaceful and prosperous years. (The Korean War was concluded formally in July 1953. Pres. Eisenhower presided over the earlier period, and Pres. Obama will most likely be in office through 2016. He too is “against open-ended wars.”) Each Jovian year (also Vedic New Year) starts with the New Moon in sidereal Pisces prior to Sun entering Aries. Years 2012-13 thru 2015-16 are respectively: Nandana, Vijaya, Jaya, and Manmatha). The next Vedic New Year starts April 7, 2016 with Durmukha. The world will enter into a more turbulent and conflict-ridden phase for a few years. Further evidence comes in 2016, when Mars and Saturn both transit Scorpio, Feb. 20-June 17; July 12-Sept. 17; and tr. Saturn aspects tr. Jupiter and Rahu in Leo, Jan. 8-Aug. 12, 2016.
Individual national charts show which countries are most likely to be involved in warfare or struggles, starting from spring 2016. Israel could be implicated, as it will be at the start of its Mars Dasa from Feb. 17, 2016. With Mars in the 12th house of its national chart, this Dasa could bring war. India will be in its 10-year Moon Dasa from Sept. 2015. This too can also bring conflict, as Navamsa Moon in India’s national chart is in the 6th house with Ketu. In the USA national chart, from late Sept. 2015 the 18-year Rahu Dasa starts. Since Rahu is with Mercury in the 8th house of the USA chart, war and conflicts have coincided, often fuelled by false information. This signature in the U.S. chart gives a national vulnerability to false and/or misleading information, but also gives a boon to the advertising and public relations industries, an American specialty. Whichever political party wins the Nov. 2020 U.S. Presidential election will dominate for most of the next 28 years. The winning party must cater heavily to business sectors.
The destiny of individual nations: Nations remain strong and resilient when the charts show: 1) a strong and well-placed Ascendant lord; 2) good relationship between Jupiter & Saturn; 3) Moon and other planets NOT in Houses 6, 8, or 12 (unless owner of that house, which can be protective). This holds true both for the national chart and for the Feb. 18, 1961 JU-SA conjunction charts located at the nation’s capital city. The latter may end up having more predictive power over time, as the nation-state and its laws deteriorate in power and influence over the years, and become more beholden to corporate conglomerates. This applies specifically to the 238-year cycle starting from Feb. 1961.
Conclusions based on the series of Jupiter-Saturn conjunctions in earth for 238 years, starting from the conjunction on Feb. 18, 1961 at 1:52 Capricorn:
1) A Jupiter-Saturn conjunction is also by definition a Graha Yuddha (Planetary War), in which Saturn always wins over Jupiter, according to rules I have established using classical principles and 15 years of research. Various factors are at play, including the condition of the sign and nakshatra lords. But Saturn’s superior size and influence, including its vast and complex system of rings, gives it victory over Jupiter. This is especially intense when Saturn is strong in its own sign and Jupiter is debilitated, exacerbating the vanquished status of Jupiter in the Graha Yuddha. Everything that Jupiter represents is diminished by the aims of Saturn, which in Capricorn represent consolidation of material wealth at the expense of Jupiterian concerns that are more humanitarian, ethical, and represent the concerns of the nation-state in preserving, protecting and defending its people, land, and resources. Large corporations have many ways to circumvent national and international laws (Jupiter) that protect citizens and resources, using lengthy legal appeals, and influence so wide and deep that no judicial or legislative process is immune. To escape scrutiny and/or accountability, common approaches are to re-establish legal residence in another country, change the corporate name, or re-focus public attention on their philanthropic ventures. Public relations firms protect companies by untarnishing tarnished images. These themes are exaggerated, as Jupiter and Saturn are Vargottama, i.e. they repeat in Capricorn in the Navamsa (9th harmonic) chart.
2) According to these principles of Graha Yuddha, Jupiter suffers less as the loser if the planetary owners of the sign and nakshatra are strong and well placed in a good house (angular or trinal) in the Rasi and Navamsa charts. If angular, according to the rules of Neecha Banga Raja yoga, the debilitated planet is helped by being in contact with or aspected by the lord of its exaltation or debilitation sign – in this case, Saturn. Thus, if Jupiter-Saturn in Capricorn is located in an angular house from the Ascendant, it is much stronger. Though Jupiter is the loser, and that cannot be cancelled, it has some chance of being raised up or working with Saturn, even if in a compromised fashion. This mitigates the debilitation of Jupiter. But we cannot discount the added affliction of the Mars influence from its 8th house aspect to Jupiter and Saturn in Capricorn. These principles are applied to the conjunction chart itself, not the national chart, unless it too occurred on Feb. 18, 1961.
3) Either way, the winning planet is raised up and the losing planet is conquered. It suffers in terms of the houses it rules and the areas of life over which it rules as karaka (significator). Jupiter is karaka of nation-states, whereas Saturn is karaka of lead, zinc, black metals, inferior grains, servants, poor people, and in modern times – oil, weapons of defense, coal and fuel of every kind, including petrol. Though Saturn is also a karaka for democracy, in this conjunction that particular identity is overwhelmed by the other factors listed for Saturn, as mentioned previously. Jupiter is the planet of learning and knowledge, and rules over both publishing and institutions of learning. Its loss in the Graha Yuddha can bring corporate control over the publishing industry and education, as corporations may pay for resources and give donations in order to control “acceptable dialogue” and “acceptable research results” – those favoring the products and/or activities of that corporation. As karaka of religion, Jupiter does not get dominance in these charts. Thus, religious issues are not the deciding factors during this 238-year cycle, though they may be used strategically to foster unrest or animosities, so are difficult to measure.
4) Saturn as victor of the Graha Yuddha wins in the nakshatra of Uttara Ashada, meaning “the latter undefeated” or “later victory.” Its desire is to gain “a victory that can never be lost.” The planetary owner of the nakshatra is the Sun, which is a planetary enemy of Saturn. As the karaka of leadership, of kings and presidents, often associated with nations and tribal groups, Sun is pitted here against Saturn in a battle of wills. The nakshatra indicates that corporations gain yet more power. Though Saturn is the planet of Truth, it is governed here by financial might which can often only be guaranteed through military might and or by pressuring nations into cooperating with their goals. Likewise, Jupiter as planet of right action (Dharma), and as long-term loser means that ethical, humanitarian considerations often lose out to the corporate juggernaut ruled by Saturn.
5) For nearly 50 years, we have observed these principles in action, and so far they are supported by world history. From Feb. 1961 onward, even if more and more countries have been formed (now 195 in total, 33 since 1990), they have suffered at the expense of certain industries, especially those listed above as karakas of Saturn, notably oil and gas, and weapons of defense. The corporations running these industries and profiting from them have done so to a larger extent than ever before within the first 50 years of this 238-year cycle. (See details in the Addenda.) Since the nation-state (Jupiter) in many cases is losing the battle to the transnational corporation, it must increasingly join hands with corporate conglomerates. This applies especially to companies owned by citizens of that country, but also to transnational corporations not beholden to any one country. The fire element dominated in the previous JU-SA conjunction cycle that featured national and religious themes, even if Saturn wins the Graha Yuddha. Jupiter owns the fire sign of Sagittarius, and does well in fire, whereas Saturn operates differently in fire, and is forced to deal with fiery energies. It is not as comfortable in fire, and is debilitated in Aries.
A review of some technical points to note in the chart for the JU-SA conjunction in Capricorn, set for various national capital cities of the world: Feb. 18, 1961:
- If the JU-SA conjunction occurs in an angular house of the Feb. 18, 1961 chart for that capital city, and is supported by a strong national chart, then that nation will better handle the threat against its sovereignty by the overreach of the corporate entity. If Jupiter and Saturn are in angular houses, Saturn has some corrective power to help Jupiter and elevate its status, though the Graha Yuddha is still in effect.
- In the national chart, if Jupiter and Saturn are strong in relationship to the Ascendant and to each other, then that nation already fares better. If either planet is situated in a Dusthana house (house 6, 8, or 12), and is Ascendant lord, then that creates weakness to the nation-state in the face of the predicted corporate overrun.
- The Navamsa (9th harmonic) chart yields important information about how that nation will fare under Saturn’s dominance. If better than the Rasi chart, it improves the situation. Indicators from both Rasi & Navamsa charts are confirmed or denied by the national chart.
- In the Feb. 18, 1961 chart, if Jupiter rules over key financial houses, and gets no correction through angular house position, that country is likely to suffer enormous financial weakness. If subsequent Jupiter-Saturn oppositions fall across the Ascendant of that chart and the national chart is weak, that nation can suffer dire consequences, either through natural or man-made disasters. If Houses 4 & 10 in the national chart are affected, as with the Aug. 2010 JU-SA opposition in Virgo-Pisces, even a strong nation can suffer.
1) JU-SA conjunction – Feb. 18, 1961, Washington, D.C: Despite widespread predictions that the East (China & Asia in general) will triumph over the West in economic and political terms, this chart indicates that the USA can continue to remain strong in the 238-year era from Feb. 1961, as long as the nation remains in a delicate state of balance with the dominance of corporate interests in government, and a semblance of democracy. Saturn triumphs when setting in the West (Dig Bala, best possible angle), while Jupiter triumphs when rising in the East. Since the conjunction falls in an angular house in both Rasi (birth chart) and Navamsa, Jupiter has a chance to be improved, so is not as utterly crushed, though it is still diminished by Saturn. With Jupiter-Saturn in the West, giving the victor Saturn even more power over Jupiter, this assures that business interests will have greater and greater sway over the citizenry, through enacting laws, etc. From the early 1960s “lobbyists” became far more numerous in the US, ensuring that corporate interests would prevail over legislative ones. The trend favors American-owned conglomerate businesses over the next 238 years from 1961. They can still dominate, as is confirmed by both the Navamsa chart and the USA national chart, and secondarily by charts for the U.S. Federal Reserve Bank and the U.S. Dept. of Defense.  The Moon (populace, women) is auspicious near the 9th house cusp, along with 11th lord Venus (women, the arts) exalted in Pisces, forming Raja and Dhana, yogas for power and wealth, both planets in Revati (“wealthy”) nakshatra. But any gains made by the people, by women and by the arts are subject to sign lord Jupiter’s inherent weakness in its sign of debilitation and as loser in the Graha Yuddha, and by nakshatra lord Mercury’s inherent weakness in the 8th house (debts) conjunct Ketu. The arts have continued to lose federal funding, as an example.
2) USA national chart (Kelleher): Sagittarius gives flexibility, resilience, and toughness as a national Ascendant. The most patriotic and religious of all the signs, it is also associated with the military and with sports. Thus, national pride is more entrenched than in other countries, and easily manipulated for the sake of foreign wars. It may even appear to exist long after corporate interests have begun to usurp the real power of the state. For instance, sports events whipping up national patriotic frenzy and fervor are a global phenomenon we can easily recognize, magnified through television and the new media. Ascendant lord Jupiter is strong and well placed in Gemini (sign of commerce), aspecting the Ascendant and Moon in Aquarius, and receiving an aspect from Saturn in Virgo. Both Jupiter and Saturn are in angular houses, and though Jupiter holds its own, Saturn is even stronger. The JU-SA conjunction of Feb. 1961 occurred in the USA 2nd house of finance. From that time, corporate wealth has increased in general. The very wealthy classes (top 1% of American households) have been steadily enriched, while the wealth of the majority of citizens and the middle class has been steadily depleted, even if the 1960s brought Civil and Voting rights for minorities, especially for African Americans. Only corporate funding can probably now help to repair infrastructure, as state and federal funds have become too depleted to pay adequately for these projects. With less regulation of corporations and weakened infrastructure, man-made disasters are more likely to impact the people and the environment than natural disasters. The food and water supply is especially highlighted from the 2010 JU-SA opposition on the Virgo-Pisces axis, though as in the past, JU-SA oppositions can bring crises followed by innovative solutions to those crises – more likely in the years closely following 2010. The U.S. should recover by 2012 from the financial & economic disasters that peaked in 2008- 2010, though increasingly, any legislative solutions will have to meet corporate approval – a real Catch-22 for the wellbeing of the environment and of the people’s physical and financial health. Corporate leaders say they are trying to figure out the new rules and tax policies. But the banking crisis of 2008-09 was created by many banks. They still reject any serious regulation and retain the most powerful lobby on Capitol Hill. “And they frankly own the place.” (Senator Dick Durbin (IL), Progress Illinois, April 29, 2009)
Other capital cities within 10 degrees of 77W 02, longitude of Washington, D.C. are: Ottawa, Canada (75W42), Port-au-Prince, Haiti (72W41), Bogotá, Colombia (74W05), Kingston, Jamaica (76W48), Lima, Peru (77W03), and Havana, Cuba (82W22). (See Haiti next, Chart #3.) The Feb. 1961 JU-SA conj. chart gives them all the advantageous Cancer Ascendant, but with differing Navamsa Ascendants, Scorpio being the worst, as weakened Jupiter afflicts the financial houses. This applies to Colombia, Jamaica, and also to Argentina, further to the East. Argentina’s national chart suffers from Moon in the 8th house, and Jupiter and Saturn in 6 – 8 house relationship, both ruled by combust Mars in Taurus aspecting the 2nd house of income. But benefics straddling Sun and Mars help to stabilize a nation that is culturally vital, though with poor financial indications in turn creating periodic political instability. (Argentina national chart: May 25, 1810, 12:00 noon, Buenos Aires. Asc. 28:13 Cancer.) In the 1961 JU-SA chart, Caracas, Venezuela (66W56) shares the advantage of same Ascendants as USA. With a national chart far stronger than that of Haiti, it promotes national sovereignty. Jupiter is in the Sagittarius Ascendant, and in a fire trine with Saturn in Leo, with Mars in the 4th house. Venezuela’s national chart dates from its independence from Spain: Sept. 22, 1839, 12:00 noon, Caracas. Asc. 5:13 Sagittarius.
3) Haiti national chart: Haiti is important to discuss next because its capital city Port-au-Prince, located at 72W41, lies close to the same longitude as Washington, D.C. (77W02). Thus, Haiti has some of the same advantages from the JU-SA conjunction chart of 1961 as does the chart set for Washington, D.C., since 20:30 Cancer is rising, with JU-SA in the 7th house, and the Navamsa (9th harmonic) chart retaining the angular planetary positions of Jupiter and Saturn, with 4:34 Capricorn Navamsa Ascendant. However, the national chart of Haiti does not support the positive news in the JU-SA conjunction chart of Feb. 1961, set for Port-au-Prince and closely duplicating that of Washington, D.C. Thus, its message is largely cancelled for Haiti, which has suffered dire poverty and political instability for much of its national history, though it arose out of an unprecedented and successful slave rebellion against French colonial masters. The African slave trade began in 1517 in Haiti (under Spain), and later it became the richest of France’s colonies. In fact, its long history of being overrun by consortiums of wealthy corporations backed by military and multi-national interests actually preceded the larger trend for the world that has been set in motion from Feb. 18, 1961. “Economic-restructuring programs” have benefited international and Haitian elites at the expense of the poor majority of Haitians, and this pattern has continued since 1961.
Pisces is the Ascendant of the national chart. Ascendant lord Jupiter is poorly placed in the 8th house (of debt and suffering), while Saturn, 12th lord (of loss) is in the 7th house aspecting the Ascendant. Combust and fiery Mars is in Sagittarius, and though gives vitality and self-confidence in the 10th house, it can also bring militancy. Haiti has suffered 33 military coup d’etats, the latest of them, in Feb. 2004, removing Haiti’s first democratically elected President, Jean-Bertrand Aristide. In and out of office since Feb. 1991, Aristide says he was kidnapped and flown to Africa by Americans. U.S. military presence in Haiti has been a factor for decades. Haiti was in Saturn dasa from Jan. 10, 2001. When Haiti suffered its devastating earthquake (Jan. 12, 2010), tr. Saturn was in the 7th house of the national chart, a Saturn return. Themes of martyrdom, sacrifice, brutal dictatorship and coup d’états have prevailed in Haiti, where citizens freed themselves from slavery, only to move into several centuries of extortionate debt burden to France, in payment for their loss of Haiti as a slave colony. (Asc. lord Jupiter is in the 8th house of debt.) Haiti is the poorest nation in the hemisphere, with rampant illiteracy, low life expectancy and high infant mortality. This national chart gives little hope of reversing a mostly unfortunate history.
4) China – Communist govt.: China has Capricorn rising in both the national chart and in the JU-SA conjunction chart of Feb. 1961. With 5:44 Capricorn Asc. in the 1961 chart, and 21:37 Aquarius Navamsa Ascendant, China’s future from 1961 is not as fortuitous as the USA, whose capital has the conjunction in the 7th house, where the victor Saturn has directional strength (Dig Bala). For China, the conjunction is in the East where Jupiter has Dig Bala. But Jupiter is already weak, as loser in the Graha Yuddha. At least it gets some correction, under the rules of Neecha Banga Raja yoga, and as lord of 12th and 3rd houses, Jupiter has some sway, improving over time the ability of China to gain financially from income from foreign countries (12th house). Aquarius rising in the Navamsa chart of Feb. 1961 puts JU-SA in the 12th house in Capricorn. As Saturn wins the Graha Yuddha, export trade triumphs over all else, as has happened in recent decades, giving China an enviable trade surplus, compared to the sizeable U.S. trade deficit. This theme is amplified in several ways, including by natal Jupiter Vargottama in Sagittarius (repeats in the Navamsa chart in its own sign) in the national chart. China’s extraordinary export trade has come since the 1980s, helped enormously by the 16-year Jupiter dasa starting from Sept. 1984.
China’s national chart is generally not auspicious for its people (Moon), with Saturn in the 8th house from Moon in Capricorn, and ruling the sign occupied by the Moon. (USA Moon has the same condition, but is modified by an aspect from Jupiter.) With the one-child policy, initiated in 1978, and applying to first-borns in 1979, the population is growing older, and has widening disparities between male and female births, with sons preferred, as in the Asian tradition. Apart from the demographics, indications for democratic trends are not good, with huge income gaps and a large impoverished sector, bringing strikes and social tensions. Nor is Asc. lord Saturn well placed from the Capricorn Ascendant. But foreign trade is favored, as the 12th house lord Jupiter is in its own sign in its own house, and national expenses are also minimized. This confirms the message in the JU-SA 1961 conjunction charts. The hidden and opaque nature of the Chinese character and way of governing is well known, and described by Asc. lord Saturn in the 8th house. Though not an auspicious house position for Asc. lord, Saturn is supposed to confer longevity in the 8th house, and at least financially, its lordship of the 2nd house of income is favored by Saturn aspecting its own house (Aquarius). Jupiter and Saturn in a fire trine to each other, and in Houses 12 and 8, respectively, show that China has a tendency to carry on based on the idealistic dynamism of its peoples and of their sense of responsibility and ability to work very hard (Capricorn Moon and Ascendant).
Though economists have widely predicted that China will surpass the USA in the next 10 or 20 years, the JU-SA conj. chart of 1961 set for Beijing (as described above) does not indicate China’s ultimate triumph over the West. There also has to be some semblance of democracy for a nation to thrive in this era, given the symbolism of Saturn. That may be increasingly difficult for China to convey (or pretend), as there are such tight controls over its citizens that do not seem likely to loosen. Though corporations can be ruthless in using their workers, nevertheless they will guard the appearance of propriety, through media control and other means. China’s reputation for flagrant abuses of human rights classically causes problems interacting with other nations. On the positive side, Moon is in its own nakshatra (Shravana), and Mercury is exalted in the 9th house. Therefore education of the Chinese and general literacy should improve, and may help in solving their massive issues around air and water pollution. The upcoming JU-SA conjunctions mainly in earth signs will fall in trinal houses of the national chart, and should help in stabilizing the country. The major challenge will be in keeping control over the populace, thus perpetuating production and the export trade.
5) Singapore national chart: Singapore is the world’s 4th leading financial center, as of 2010, and one of the richest states in East Asia due to its strategic location as a port. Focus for its 5.3 million people is on industry, education, and urban planning. Despite its small size, this island nation plays a key role in international trade and finance. It is the 9th largest in foreign reserves, and has the world’s 5th busiest port. The JU-SA 1961 conjunction chart set for Singapore shares some of the same advantages as that of China, with JU-SA angular in the Capricorn Ascendant of the chart. It does even better than China in the Navamsa chart, with Aries Navamsa Ascendant, and its lord Mars in a Dhana yoga of wealth in the 9th house. The JU-SA conjunction retains angular position in the 10th house. All Navamsa planets except Rahu are prominent above the horizon.
Singapore was a self-governing nation as of June 3, 1959, though it was still part of the British Empire. There are three possible choices for Singapore’s national chart, though its independence and secession from Malaysia was complete by Aug. 9, 1965. I prefer a chart set for 4:25 PM that day, when parliamentary debates and proceedings would have concluded in the Malaysian parliament. Nick Campion suggests 4:15 or 4:20 PM, as debates were concluded between 4 and 4:30 PM.  However, Libra Navamsa Asc. is more suitable, and starts at 4:25 PM local time.
All of the signatures of a stable national chart are here: Ascendant lord Jupiter is in an angular house and aspects the Ascendant. Jupiter and Saturn are in an air trine, describing the commercial success and stability of the country, and Moon is in the Ascendant receiving aspects from Jupiter and Mars. Moon as 8th lord is not as dangerous for Sagittarius Ascendant, as Jupiter is a planetary friend and Jupiter is exalted in Moon’s sign. Mars is Vargottama and Dig Bala in the 10th house, adding to the vitality of the nation and its enormous success, though Mars so prominent in Virgo may account for Singapore’s wide use of Caning, a form of legal corporal punishment. Sagittarius Asc. is excellent for maintaining citizens’ loyalty and assuring a patriotic spirit. National charts of the USA and Venezuela also share the Sagittarius Ascendant.
The JU-SA 1961 conjunction chart set for Tokyo, Japan has 9:49 Aquarius Asc. with exalted Venus in the 2nd house of income, and JU-SA in the 12th house – favoring exports. Navamsa Sagittarius Asc. delivers two major Dhana yogas of wealth: JU-SA in the 2nd house of income, and Mars and Sun in the Navamsa Asc. This 1961 imprint boosts Japan’s economic viability and protects its ability to survive this 238-year cycle. Its national chart needs my further investigation, as there are numerous choices. But Japan’s status as the 2nd largest economy (up through Aug. 2010) speaks for itself, with 99% literacy rate, best longevity rate, and a population of 127 million. China has just overtaken Japan as the world’s 2nd largest economy, after the USA. China’s growth rate is at 10%, whereas Japan is forecast to grow at 2 to 3%. But China still faces big issues in controlling its population.
6) JU-SA conjunction – Feb. 18, 1961, Berlin, Germany: This is a powerful chart for several reasons, and it is very auspicious for the future wellbeing of Germany, which as of 2010 surpassed all 27 member states in the European Union due to its economic strength. (The European Union creates mutual trading benefits between member states, and was intended from its inception in 1951 to reduce the extreme nationalism of the previous era. In the process, national sovereignty is necessarily reduced, though not eliminated. The European Union may do extremely well in this 238-year period because of the trends indicated by the JU-SA conjunction of 1961.) The conjunction occurs in the 4th house of this chart set for Berlin. Saturn as winner of the Graha Yuddha is Yogakaraka for Libra Ascendant, being the best planet for this chart. Since the Ascendant is Vargottama in Libra (repeats by sign in the Navamsa), it gains strength in that way, added to which the Ascendant degree is within one minute of the exact JU-SA conjunction degree on the 4th house cusp, protecting the nation’s foundation and infrastructure. Note that the JU-SA conjunction charts set for any capital bring problems to the combination of Moon and Venus, for reasons cited under Chart #1, and in this case, with Moon and Venus in the 6th house, there can be sacrifices for women and for the arts. Yet, the reality is that Germany has a larger federal budget for the arts than most other nations, so it has to be seen that the improved house position of both Venus and Moon in the Navamsa has rectified that issue. In the 21st century, we also see Angela Merkel as Chancellor of Germany, since Nov. 2005, and before that she held important political and leadership posts.
Ideally we should check this against Germany’s national chart, but the question arises of which of them to use. Political unification occurred Oct. 3, 1990 at midnight, Berlin, though administrative changes occurred through July 1994. However, Germany’s observable success in recent years, outperforming all other European Union nations – notably during the financial crisis – indicate that the national chart will not deny the positive message of the 1961 JU-SA conjunction chart. 
7) JU-SA conjunction – Feb. 18, 1961, London, UK: London, UK is located at 0W10, 51N30, and has 22:40 Virgo rising at the moment of the major JU-SA conjunction, with 24:02 Cancer Navamsa Ascendant. Virgo Ascendant, though not as fortuitous as Berlin’s early Libra Ascendant, nevertheless puts JU-SA in a trinal house in the Rasi chart, and in an angular house, the 7th house in the Navamsa, Saturn’s best house for directional strength. Exalted Venus is exactly setting in the Rasi chart, giving the United Kingdom some long-term leadership in the arts and fashion. These charts have mixed news for women and the people in general, with 8th house Navamsa Moon.
This gives the U.K. likelihood of thriving reasonably well in the years of JU-SA conjunctions in earth. Confirming the conjunction chart with a national chart is again in question, in terms of which one to use. But so far the relatively positive news has not been overturned. We can say the same for France, whose 1961 chart is close to that of the London chart, with 25:00 Virgo rising, and the same indications for fashion and the arts, though London’s Ascendant contact with Venus is closer. Paris has 15:01 Leo rising in the 1961 Navamsa chart, putting the JU-SA conjunction, along with Mercury and Venus in the 6th house. This is not as advantageous as the London chart, and gives London the edge in the arts and fashion. Moon is in the 7th house for France, which as 12th lord, describes the increasing immigrant population in France. It is more noticeable in the Paris chart than in the one for London. Ideally, both of these charts for capital cities are backed up with national charts, but these 1961 charts show the basic strength to survive and thrive.
Using London’s longitude as a plumb line, within a range of a few degrees, we can examine the destinies of some African nations whose capitals lie close to that longitudinal line. Algiers, Algeria is located at 3E03, 36N47. It has 27:57 Virgo Asc. in the 1961 JU-SA conjunction chart. Since the Asc. is Vargottama, it has some strength, but with Jupiter losing the Graha Yuddha, 4th and 7th house matters suffer. This affects the basic foundation and infrastructure of the country, as well as foreign relations.
8) Algeria national chart: Algeria is the 2nd largest country in Africa, after the Sudan, and was under French rule from 1830 up through Independence on July 3, 1962, preceded by Algeria’s war for independence from France, from 1954 through 1962. With Leo rising and Jupiter and Mars aspecting the Ascendant, the national chart shows the strong and potentially militant role religion plays. Jupiter is the planet of religion, and its influence is conservative. Muslim influences have played a major part in defining modern Algeria. Though Jupiter’s close and benefic aspect to Leo Ascendant is auspicious, and helps the country to survive, it is offset by the difficult combination of planets in opposition across Houses 6 – 12: Saturn-Ketu in Capricorn opposition Moon-Rahu-Venus in Cancer in the 12th house. This indicates the people struggle against poverty and oppressive work and/or health conditions. These are only slightly alleviated in the Navamsa chart. Jupiter and Saturn in 2-12 mutual house relationship from each other are not ideal, but they improve in the Navamsa of the national chart, both situated in angular houses. Jupiter’s emphasis is highlighted, located right opposite the Ascendant in its own sign of Pisces.
There are Dhana yogas (of wealth) coming from lords of Houses 2 and 9 (Mercury and Mars) together in House 10, giving them strength in an angular house in the national chart. Algeria’s rich Hassi Messaoud oil fields are an excellent indicator of wealth. However, these yogas disappear in the Navamsa chart. The majority of Algerians do not tend to benefit, due to Moon’s position in the 12th house of the national Rasi and Navamsa charts, and in the 8th house of the 1961 Navamsa chart. Houses 6, 8, and 12 are the most difficult house placements for planets, unless exports are featured, placing key planets in the 12th house, as with China and Japan, though preferably not the Moon.
Another African capital close to London’s longitude is Accra, Ghana, at 0W13, 5N33. Due to its latitude, the Ascendant moves to 0:11 Libra, Vargottama, and thus repeats the success story of Berlin, Germany. But a national chart must corroborate, and it does not, in this case. Ghana gained independence from Britain March 6, 1957, 00:00 hours, set for its capital, Accra. With Saturn and Rahu in the Scorpio Ascendant, and Moon and Mars in the 6th house, this national chart shows strife and obstacles, even if Jupiter in Virgo provides a Dhana yoga of wealth, as lord of Houses 2 and 5 situated in the 11th house. But the wealth and resources do not benefit the people, with Moon-Rahu in Cancer in the Navamsa 8th house opposite Venus-Saturn-Ketu. Mars-Mercury in the Navamsa Asc. shows strife. Like Algeria, Angola and Nigeria also have their own large oil fields. But rich oil reserves have brought them exploitation and suffering rather than peace and prosperity.
Compare this to the oil-rich United Arab Emirates, whose Scorpio Vargottama Asc. in the 1961 JU-SA conj. chart is offset by the 1961 Navamsa chart as well as a powerful national chart – which has Aquarius Ascendant, several Dhana yogas of wealth, and five planets in angles, including exalted Full Moon and JU-SA opposition (Dec. 2, 1971, 12 noon, Dubai). It should recover from its period of excess at the end of Jupiter-Venus dasa Nov. 10, 2012.
9) India national chart: Among “emerging nations” – including Brazil, China, and Russia – India’s economic status has skyrocketed in recent years, and is supported by a strong 1961 JU-SA conjunction imprint, as well as resonating with the successes of the USA, its capital city Delhi (77E12) being exactly 180 degrees from Washington, D.C. (77W02). This connection was triggered by the 1980-81 JU-SA conjunctions in Virgo, ruled by Mercury, and linking the two countries through the burgeoning Information Technology industry.
Many American jobs have been transferred to India in the process, but many Indian nationals have also contributed to America’s IT industry, notably in Silicon Valley. These results may reflect the resonance between the capital cities, along with 3rd sign or house.
The 1961 JU-SA conjunction chart set for Delhi has 3:23 Sagittarius rising, with JU-SA providing a Dhana yoga in the 2nd house. However, Jupiter’s loss in the Graha Yuddha creates losses for 1st and 4th house matters. The country’s identity and its infrastructure struggle under the weight of their new economic prosperity, though exalted Venus in the 4th house has to bring some benefit to the foundation of the country. But with Venus’s sign lord losing the Graha Yuddha to Saturn, Venus can only do so much. India must guard against losing the richness of its land (including the soil itself) and its heritage during this 238-year cycle. The good news is that the Navamsa chart improves. Its Ascendant is Aries, shared by prosperous Singapore. This places 8 out of 9 planets in Houses 9, 10, and 11, with Mercury Venus-Jupiter-Saturn in Capricorn all strongly in the 10th house.
Reviewing India’s independence chart as national chart (my preference), five planets are in the 3rd house. With so many of their dasas running since 1947, the Information Technology industry has been an enormous boon for India. India’s 20-year Venus dasa since Sept. 10, 1989 has been very beneficial for the country, and has catapulted it into new economic territory, precisely because of the wealth of the ITT sector, and the Indian genius for 3rd house matters – communications at all levels, mirroring USA’s four planets in Gemini (the 3rd sign). Dasas of 3rd house planets will continue through Sept. 2025, and even the 7-year Mars dasa is helped by the Dig Bala position of Navamsa Mars in Sagittarius. As lord of the 12th house of loss, and situated in the 2nd house of income, Mars in its dasa could bring losses and heavier debts to the nation. (Mars dasa runs from Sept. 10, 2025 thru Sept. 10, 2032.) Jupiter and Saturn in angles from each other provide some stability, if not at times with tension. The Indian culture, religion, traditions, cuisine, arts and rich spiritual heritage are all described through the many planets in Cancer, including Sun, Moon, and Asc. lord Venus. So many planets in Cancer give a close sense of family, ethnic or tribal ties within the country and abroad. This vast networking of people enables it to remain culturally self-sustaining, and points the way towards keeping India vibrant economically. However, for the sake of continuity, five planets in Cancer can also bring with them the burdens of so much traditional expectation from one generation to the next. Lastly, as 8th lord in the 6th house, natal Jupiter provides long-term protection from debts (a Viparita Raja yoga).
10) Brazil national chart: There are mixed indications for Brazil’s ability to fulfill its prophesy as one of the future leading economic superpowers, but most do not support it. Jupiter and Saturn are in 2-12 mutual house relationship – not ideal – and Saturn as Ascendant lord is debilitated in the 3rd house in Aries. But it gets some correction from the aspect from Mars in Libra in the 9th house. Thus technical skills (Mars-Saturn) help to lift this nation up, and Moon is exalted in the 4th house with Jupiter, giving an exuberant spirit to the people that is especially well known through its culture, and through its music in particular. Even so, Venus (the arts) is not well placed in the 6th house close to Ketu in Cancer, though improves house position in the Navamsa chart. Moon and Jupiter are Vargottama in Taurus, and are situated in a strong angular house position in the Navamsa chart, the 7th house. There is some debt control with exalted Mercury in the 8th house.
Indications from the national chart are not improved in the 1961 JU-SA conjunction chart, set for Brasilia, the nation’s capital. The Ascendant is 6:10 Leo, with JU-SA in Capricorn in the 6th house. Not in an angular house, Jupiter cannot be corrected through Neecha Banga Raja yoga. This weakens Jupiter in general, and both the 5th and the 8th houses, reducing ability to control either of these financial houses, 8th being debt burden. The Navamsa Asc. is 25:31 Taurus, placing the JU-SA in the 9th house. This further strengthens Saturn, but does not help Jupiter and all it represents. The Brazilian cultural cohesion will have to withstand the onslaught of ruthless materialism, and struggles in doing so.
Moscow’s 1961 JU-SA conjunction chart has 16:40 Libra Ascendant, as with Berlin, Germany. The Pisces Navamsa Asc. is shared by Ottawa, Canada, which at 75W42 also has the favored Cancer Asc. shared with the USA. Canada is a good comparison to Russia, as both countries have rich oil fields, among the richest among developed nations. How this will translate into national longevity has already been shown in Russia, as tensions over who controls which oil reserves have created civil unrest and violence. Which national chart is best for Canada or Russia is not clear to me without further study, so I use the 1961 JU-SA conj. chart. Pisces Ascendant gives strength to Saturn as 11th and 12th house lord, and brings income from exports, while weakening Houses 1 and 10. The former weakens national identity, and the latter weakens the country’s status and aims. Identity can be weakened by various factors, including immigration and confusion about national purpose and goals. However, four planets in the 11th house bring many friends and allies. Mars and Sun Dig Bala in the 10th house promote vitality. With Moon and Ketu in the 12th house (Moon ruler of the 5th house), birth rates may decline in these countries, and the people may not be as comfortable living there.
11) Mexico national chart: Finishing off with some trouble spots around the world, we begin with Mexico, embroiled in wars between drug cartels and the government, not an uncommon situation when illegal drugs and illegal arms have trillion dollar profits. The 1961 JU-SA conjunction chart set for Mexico City has 26:58 Gemini (Vargottama) rising, with Mars in the Ascendant, and in the Navamsa chart Gemini Asc. repeats, with Mars and Sun in the 7th house. This is a much more violent chart than any of the other Ascendants for this seminal chart, with Mars either rising or in the 7th house in Rasi and Navamsa charts. The JU-SA conjunction is in the 8th house of covert matters, weakening 7th and 10th house affairs, as Jupiter cannot be strengthened. The economy becomes more hidden in this case, and we see this with the immense fortunes wielded by the drug cartels, which diminish and destabilize the legitimate economy. With such an increase in violence in Mexico as of summer 2010, likened by Sec. of State Hillary Clinton to “an insurgency,” we may consider that the JU-SA opposition across Houses 4 and 10 of this 1961 chart is bringing some of these hidden tendencies to the forefront. Pyongyang, North Korea shares this difficult Gemini Asc. in the Feb. 1961 chart, but is not Vargottama.
Mexico’s national chart echoes the Gemini Ascendant theme. Again Gemini is rising, at 25:12 degrees, giving Taurus Navamsa Asc. Gemini boosts commerce, as the air signs are signs of trade and commerce. Asc. lord Mercury is well placed in an angle, aspecting the Ascendant. But it is very tightly conjunct Rahu and Venus, and in a Graha Yuddha with Venus, which Mercury loses. This weakens national identity considerably, as well as 4th house concerns, the land and the soil. Ketu in the Ascendant is more mysterious, making it less clear what the country represents, and what is its identity. It echoes the reality of Asc. lord losing the Graha Yuddha, even if in combat with its great planetary friend Venus, and aspected by sign lord Jupiter. As Venus rules houses 5 and 12, and tightly contacts Mercury and Rahu, the birth rate fluctuates more, as well as cultural matters, which with Rahu – can get exaggerated, or get a lot of press. Various Mexican artists have worldwide recognition, and some notoriety. Moon is in the 12th house of expenditures in both Rasi and Navamsa charts. Again, the people may not live in comfort, or there may be many foreigners residing there. Moon is exalted in Taurus in the Rasi chart, but as ruler of the 2nd house of income situated in the 12th house of loss and expenses – does not bode well for national income, which is either lost, stolen, or disappears into the realm of the mafia.
This is confirmed by aspects from three malefics to the 2nd house of national income. As 6th lord exalted in the 8th house, Mars creates some protection for national health, but friends are hidden and powerful, as Mars is also 11th lord, making them harder to identify.
12) Israel national chart: Emphasis on conflict and on the food supply comes with Vargottama Virgo Ascendant. A major topic in Israel and throughout the Middle East is water supply and arable land. A Vargottama Asc. brings strength and longevity to a country. In a dual sign, it brings tremendous adaptability and versatility. But in Virgo, it has also brought almost ceaseless conflict. With Mars, 3rd lord of neighbors in the 12th house, there are conflicts with neighboring countries right from the start. Mars gives some protection as 8th lord situated in the 12th house (a Viparita Raja yoga). But Israel is boxed in by the Papakartari yoga to the Ascendant (malefics in Houses 2 and 12). This is offset by two benefic planets (Venus & Jupiter) in angles of the chart, and by Asc. lord Mercury extremely well placed in the 9th house in Taurus, while Venus is at the top of the chart in Gemini. This creates Dhana and Raja yogas of power and wealth, with an exchange between 9th and 10th house lords as well as 1st and 2nd house lords. Both these combinations define Israel’s history as much as its conflict-ridden and passionate Zionist quest, as 9th house lord (Venus) is strong. This was fulfilled in 1948, after over 100 years of seeking to return to their Jewish homeland. Strong financial and political support from the USA is shown by strong 11th house indications in all of these charts.
Venus is the best planet for Virgo Ascendant, and is well situated in this chart, bringing benefits to the arts and to women. Democracy thrives in Israel, though with Saturn in Cancer contacting the Moon, the people work hard and suffer under the impact of their historical and physical situation. Their land is benefited by Jupiter in the 4th house of in its own sign of Sagittarius, though in Ketu’s nakshatra. With Jupiter and Saturn in 6 – 8 house relationship, there is unease and tension between national goals and necessities, also known as Dharma and Karma. With Israel entering its 6-year Mars Dasa Feb. 17, 2016, we can expect to see more than the usual violence erupting in and around Israel. This coincides with a more turbulent period for the world, starting from April 2016, and coinciding with the Jovian year Durmukha. In the Feb. 1961 JU-SA conjunction chart, set for Jerusalem, it has 25:56 Libra Ascendant, and Taurus Navamsa Asc, bringing reasonable strength, and all charts together showing the ability to survive and thrive.
Other Hot spot countries include many which are so politically unstable it is difficult to determine which is the proper national chart to use. Here again, the Feb. 18, 1961 JU-SA conjunction chart becomes a welcome option, and even if we do not support it with a national chart, we can look at the events of the past 50 years. Scorpio Ascendant is unfortunate financially in these Feb. 1961 charts, as JU-SA is situated in the 3nd house, and Jupiter rules two financial houses (Houses 2 and 5). Losing the Graha Yuddha, this Jupiter drastically reduces the financial wealth of the country, and cannot be corrected through Neecha Banga, since it is not in an angular house from the Ascendant. This is shared by, among others: Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, North Korea, and South Africa.
Tehran, Iran has 13:52 Scorpio Asc., Vargottama, emphasized by being repeated in the Navamsa. Kabul, Afghanistan also has Scorpio Asc. in the Feb. 1961 chart, with Capricorn Navamsa Asc, same as the USA. While the Navamsa chart shows some improvement, with four planets in the Ascendant, including Jupiter and Saturn, the Rasi Asc. lord Mars goes to the Navamsa 12th house. This brings loss, but also some benefit through exports. As it is Mars, however, the main item exported and imported appears to be either military weapons and warfare or something covert. Drug wars come from Afghanistan’s status as the Opium capital of the world. The USA, sharing the same Capricorn Navamsa Asc., has exported a lot of military personnel and weapons since Feb. 1961. America’s longest-ever war has been in Afghanistan, since Oct. 2001, so an astrological link is fitting. Bahdad, Iraq has Scorpio Asc., with Cancer Navamsa Asc. and Moon and Ketu in the 8th house of suffering. (Moon is the people.) Pyongyang, North Korea has 18:10 Capricorn Asc., which is favorable, but the Navamsa chart is not as favorable, with Gemini Asc. and JU-SA in the 8th house. Gemini rising (Vargottama) is shared by Mexico, which has struggled with ongoing drug wars that have usurped the common good of the people and destabilized the nation. With Mars on the Ascendant axis of the Gemini or Sagittarius rising charts (Feb. 1961), strife is likely over the long-term.
Recent violence has also plagued Greece due to its fiscal crisis, threat of national bankruptcy, and people’s revolt against necessary austerity measures. These trends will lessen, depending on the national chart. But judging from the Feb. 1961 chart, set for Athens, Libra is rising – shared by prosperous Germany, its greatest rescuer within the European Union, which in May 2010 voted with the IMF to give Greece a large bailout of $400 billion USD. Greece also has Aquarius Navamsa Asc., which brings benefit through exports or foreign tourist trade, and may bring eventual recovery to the nation.
Islamabad, Pakistan has Capricorn Asc. rising in the Rasi Feb. 1961 chart, and Navamsa Aries Asc. These are reasonably good charts, with JU-SA in angles in both cases, but we know from historical events that the national chart cannot support these charts, similar to Haiti, and its national chart not supporting the Feb. 1961 charts. (Pakistan national chart: Aug. 14, 1947, 9:30 AM, Karachi. Asc. 5:46 Virgo.)
1) Some important and relevant event markers in U.S. political history in the years of JU-SA conjunctions, from 1961, occurring every 20 yrs:
a) Jan. 17, 1961: U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower gave his Farewell address to the nation, one month prior to the first of the JU-SA conjunctions in earth on Feb. 18, 1961. As if warning us of what was to come, Eisenhower delivered these words as part of his Farewell message to the nation: “…Until the latest of our world conflicts, the United States had no armaments industry…. This conjunction of an immense military establishment and a large arms industry is new in the American experience. The total influence – economic, political, even spiritual – is felt in every city, every State house, every office of the Federal government. We recognize the imperative need for this development. Yet we must not fail to comprehend its grave implications. Our toil, resources and livelihood are all involved. So is the very structure of our society. In the councils of government, we must guard against the acquisition of unwarranted influence, whether sought or unsought, by the military-industrial complex. The potential for the disastrous rise of misplaced power exists and will persist.”
b) Jan. 21, 1961: Robert S. McNamara became Secretary of Defense in the Kennedy administration, elected Nov. 8, 1960. On Nov. 9, 1960 McNamara became the President of Ford Motor Co., having worked his way up thru the auto industry and the business world, attaining an MBA from Harvard Business School in 1939. Kennedy offered him the choice of Sec. of the Treasury or Sec. of Defense. There was a new business approach to Defense, which quickly became the big budget, war-driven machine it is today. The U.S. defense budget is $700 billion annually, thereby exactly fulfilling Eisenhower’s prophesy. After serving as the controversial Sec. of Defense during the Vietnam War era, from Jan. 21, 1961 thru Feb. 29, 1968, he became the President of the World Bank, up to 1981. (McNamara was born June 9, 1916, 5:45 AM, San Francisco, CA. His Asc. at 8:17 Gemini closely opposes the USA Asc. at 8:59 Sagittarius. His natal Jupiter is at 4:21 Aries, and Saturn 23:12 Gemini.)
c) Aug. 4, 1961: Barack Obama was born, the first U.S. president to carry the powerful astrological signature of the 1961 JU-SA conjunction.  He was elected Nov. 4, 2008. My public prediction of Obama’s victory 10 months in advance of the election was based on several factors, including my preference for a sunrise birth chart (6:10 AM HST, Aug. 4, 1961, Honolulu, HI), Cancer Ascendant.  This puts the Jupiter-Saturn conjunction in Capricorn in his 7th house, giving Saturn the same directional strength it has in the 1961 JU-SA conjunction chart set for Washington, D.C. (Chart #1). This also gives him the destiny to deal with corporate vs. national issues. Despite having promised more idealistic aims and results during his campaign, in his presidency he has shown that he does not discount the vast power of the business community. Though he has disappointed many liberals and progressives, he shows no contradiction from his lifelong pragmatism (Saturn), which according to the symbolism of this conjunction, would have to trump his idealism (Jupiter) at crucial junctures. He may have only underestimated the power of the moneyed elite to oppose him. Even so, he has the destiny to be re-elected in Nov. 2012, when tr. Jupiter in Taurus will contact his natal Moon, and tr. Saturn in Libra will be in the competitive 6th house from Moon. His 6:10 AM chart shows Obama in Jupiter-Mars dasa from May 29, 2012 for 11 months. Both are friends to Cancer Ascendant, though in mutual 6 – 8 house relationship. Obama should complete his second term as U.S. President, after 8 years.
d) Jan. 20, 1981: Ronald Reagan’s presidency ushered in 28 years of almost continuous pro-business policies. Donald Rumsfeld was the youngest-ever Secretary of Defense under Pres. Gerald Ford, 1975-1977.  He then left politics to enter private industry, becoming CEO of G.D. Searle Company from 1977 thru 1985, when Monsanto bought out Searle. Rumsfeld was still CEO of G.D. Searle, when as part of Pres. Reagan’s transition team in 1980-81, he used his position to get Searle’s product Aspartame approved. He appointed his friend Dr. Arthur Hull Hayes, Jr. Commissioner of FDA (Food & Drug Administration). Dr. Hayes obliged Rumsfeld, who was unconcerned with Aspartame’s consistently bad test results.  FDA in-house scientists rejected this product for 17 years, finding G.D. Searle’s testing shoddy and ineffective, unworthy of being taken seriously. But Rumsfeld was determined to move Aspartame forward legally and politically, since opinions of scientists had stood in the way for so many years. From Dec. 31, 1980 thru July 23, 1981, there were three JU-SA conjunctions in Virgo. Virgo is a sign associated with harvests, and therefore the food supply. Projects in this arena could be set in motion more successfully at this time, for good or for ill. On July 15, 1981, Dr. Hayes overruled the Public Board of Inquiry, ignoring the recommendations of his own team of scientists. He approved Aspartame for dry goods in July 1981 and for carbonated beverages in 1983. This product is also known as NutraSweet, Equal, Spoonful, and Equal-Measure.
With no calories and 180 times sweeter than sugar, Aspartame’s approval unleashed a huge market of diet foods & beverages, starting in 1982 and 1983. The drug never passed scientific testing with animals, and was known to cause brain tumors, convulsions, seizures, and neurodegenerative destruction in lab animals. The pharmaceutical industry (Saturn) triumphed over ethical arbiters (Jupiter) who were ignored and overruled. Saturn rules over “inferior grains” and “black liquids,” and these items can dominate when Saturn is in power. Since purchasing G.D. Searle in 1985, Monsanto has consistently denied or minimized Aspartame’s negatives. For his achievements in Searle’s turnaround, Rumsfeld was named the Outstanding Chief Executive Officer in the Pharmaceutical Industry in 1980 and 1981.
e) Jan. 20, 2001: Dick Cheney became Vice President under Pres. GW. Bush thru Jan. 20, 2009. His role as former CEO of Halliburton (a military defense equipment company) was pivotal in terms of the number of no-bid contracts awarded to Halliburton in the Iraq war, after the US/UK invasion of Iraq in March 2003. 21, 2001: Donald Rumsfeld became Sec. of Defense under Pres. GW. Bush, through to his resignation Dec. 18, 2006. Both Cheney and Rumsfeld were controversial figures, with reputations for ruthlessness. Rumsfeld was known to run his wars like a business, and shared some of the same characteristics as McNamara. He insisted that a war be run efficiently, with far less consideration for alleged human rights violations and war crimes.
f) Dec. 1999: Bill Gates (CEO & Founder of Microsoft) reached the maximum of his fortune, at $101 billion, having fought legal battles in the courts for several years, fending off the breakup of his company under the Sherman Anti-Trust Act of 1890. This was ordered in spring 2000, but Gates appealed, and got off lightly, on Sept. 6, 2001. His fortune was built up in the years following the JU-SA conjunction in Virgo (1980-81). The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation became far more active from 2000. The May 28, 2000 JU-SA conjunction was at 28:51 Aries near Gates’ 11th house cusp of friends & allies.
2) Some important and relevant event markers in U.S. & world history in years of JU-SA oppositions, from 1970-71, occurring every 20 yrs. (The biggest crisis in any Jupiter-Saturn cycle can come at the Jupiter-Saturn opposition, when the smooth workings of the cycle are under intense scrutiny):
a) Aug. 15, 1971: Gold-dollar link severed by U.S. Pres. Nixon: Three JU-SA oppositions occurred from late Dec. 1969 through mid-October 1971, the first two in Libra-Aries, the last in Scorpio-Taurus. This coincided with the end of the gold-dollar based monetary system. For all practical purposes, the dollar was completely removed from the gold standard in 1970 —when the requirement that Federal Reserve notes have a backing of at least 25% gold was dropped. Then on August 15, 1971, President Nixon announced he was formally severing the gold-dollar link. By unpegging the dollar, and thus all world currencies from the gold standard, no nation from then on has had control of its own currency, since the currency market has been free-floating and speculative. Nixon’s decision favored domestic economic interests and security over and above international concerns, such as preserving the international monetary regime. It probably also insured his re-election. Removing the gold-dollar standard was essential for the globalization process, which favors lifting sanctions on international currencies and banking practices. Such free-flowing capital benefits transnational corporations in particular and makes money laundering almost impossible to control.
b) March 24, 1989: Exxon-Valdez Oil spill, the largest oil spill in U.S. history, until the explosion of BP’s Deepwater Horizon rig in the Gulf of Mexico April 20, 2010, both disasters in U.S. coastal waters. Three JU-SA oppositions occurred from Sept. 1989 thru July 1990, all in Gemini-Sagittarius. In the aftermath of the Exxon-Valdez, U.S. Congress passed the Federal Oil Pollution Act 18, 1990. Intended to regulate commercial oil operations, it did not improve safety measures or regulation of the oil industry enough to prevent thousands more damaging oil spills and explosions. Deepwater drilling increased with preventive safety measures promised, but never planned or implemented.
c) Nov. 9, 1989: Fall of the Berlin wall, End of the Cold War: Breakup of the Soviet Union, from Jun 12, 1990, with the sovereignty of the Russian Federative Republic within the USSR. Fall of Communist Russia, Aug. 22-Sept. 5, 1991. The USSR was suddenly gone – America’s biggest threat since post-WWII. In 1991, the U.S. military budget was 27% of the total spent by all nations. By 1995, it was 32%. Since then figures are unavailable, but legal military weapons sales have expanded since 1991, only rivaled by illegal weapons, and drugs – both legal and illegal. Saturn rules all of these.
d) Dec. 25 1990: British scientist Tim Berners-Lee invented the World Wide Web, implementing the first successful communication between an HTTP client and server, and making possible the first global sharing of information via the Internet. His initial proposal for it was in March 1989.  The JU-SA oppositions in Gemini-Sagittarius were also markers for advances in the new technology. (This axis rules over the communications systems of the world, and is like a global nervous system. Solutions came with the JU-SA oppositions in 1990-91, and the implementation with the JU-SA conjunction in 2000.) Fiber optics was known since the early 1840s, and started to gain momentum with important discoveries in 1965 and 1970. But not until the development of photonic crystal fiber in 1991, becoming more widely commercially viable in 2000, did the telecommunications industry become revolutionized, making it far less expensive for the average user of phone, Internet, and Data processing. With Fiber optics, light passes through fiber, amplifying the light, and permitting wavelength, division, and multiplexing, thereby dramatically increasing the capacity of the fiber. And while Internet use promotes democracy, it also enables a more vast surveillance of all communications.
e) Jan. 16 1991: First U.S. invasion of Iraq (through March 3, 1991), due to Iraq’s invasion & occupation of Kuwait on Aug. 2, 1990. Iraq had long considered Kuwait part of its territory, and border disputes were ongoing. Though Iraq has significant oil reserves of its own, 8 known oil fields as of 2010, Kuwait has some of the largest oil reserves of any single nation-state. (Kuwait’s independence was recognized June 19, 1961, 12 noon, Kuwait, giving it likely prominence in this 238-year era.) BP – the 3rd largest global energy company, and the 4th largest company in the world – began as the Anglo-Persian Oil Company (April 14, 1909, 12 noon used, London, UK). Its aim was oil exploration in Persia (now Iran). BP’s revenues in 2009 were $246 billion; 2009 net income was $17 billion USD.
f) Aug. 16, 2010: Health and safety issues were highlighted with the Jupiter-Saturn opposition in Pisces-Virgo. More attention is focused on the problems of health and safety, as a result of recent wars, and industrial disasters, especially the Gulf Oil spill in spring-summer 2010. Focus is on the safety of the food and water supply, as with the huge flood disaster in Pakistan Aug. 2010, displacing 14 million people. Due to salmonella poisoning, the largest egg recall in U.S. history took place in spring and summer 2010: half a billion eggs. On Aug. 31, 2010, U.S. combat troops withdrew from Iraq, but large issues remain regarding the health and wellbeing of both U.S. and allied military, but especially Iraqi citizens and military, who have been heavily impacted, and less documented. Al Jazeera reports that the Pentagon used more than 300 tons of depleted uranium in 1991, and more than 1,000 tons of it in 2003. Cancer rates are exploding in Iraq, along with the “Gulf War Syndrome” in American military who were exposed to depleted uranium.
g) Aug. 2010: Both the USA and India announced multi-billion dollar proposals to rebuild lagging infrastructure. The JU-SA opposition in Virgo-Pisces falls across the USA national 4-10 house axis, affecting this arena, and for India, the same house axis in their 1961 JU-SA conjunction chart, with early Sagittarius Ascendant. But while ideas and inventions for solutions come at the JU-SA opposition, full implementation may not occur until the JU-SA square in 2015, or the next JU-SA conjunction in 2020.
Copyright © 2010 By Edith Hathaway. All rights reserved.
 Playwright, screenwriter, novelist Paddy Chayefsky (1923-1981) wrote these lines for the movie Network (1976), about the takeover of television networks by corporate conglomerates. It was quoted again on Sept. 9, 2001 by Maureen Dowd in her New York Times column, calling Chayefsky “eerily prescient.” Dowd rails against the legal unleashing of Microsoft on Sept. 6, 2001, “signaling media conglomerates that they can conglomerate away, accelerating the centralization of American power into the hands of a very few very rich people.” The story continues with the Oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico from the Deepwater Horizon explosion April 20, 2010, an environmental disaster whose scope is not yet fully known, but comparable to the industrial disaster generated from the leak of toxic chemicals at the Union Carbide plant in Bhopal, India on Dec. 2, 1984. Please see also my articles, Jupiter-Saturn and the Transnational Companies, Parts 1 & 2, ©2001, rev. 2010, at my website: www.edithhathaway.com
 A 60-year cycle unites both Jupiter and Saturn, as it represents two orbital revolutions of Saturn around the Sun, and five of Jupiter. Years within the 60-year Jupiter cycle are also known as “the Jovian years.”
 The C.I.A. backed UFC’s operations in Guatemala in the mid-1950s. In Nov. 1958 Fidel Castro seized power in Cuba. In 1959, he also seized UFC’s sugar properties in Cuba as part of his agrarian reform. U.S anti-Communist sentiment ran rampant in that period, and this was considered a war on capitalism.
 On May 10, 1886, 12 noon PST, Santa Clara, CA tr. Jupiter was retrograde at 4:00 Virgo, and tr. Saturn at 13:07 Gemini, closely interacting with the USA chart planets in Gemini & Virgo, incl. Jupiter at 15:12 Gemini, Saturn at 24:04 Virgo. USA chart (Asc. 8:59 Sagittarius) is coming up shortly.
 Graha Yuddha: Two planets are within one degree of each other, either in the same sign or in adjacent signs. Only five planets can participate: Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn. My research, conducted initially with Vedic astrologer Chakrapani Ullal, shows the winner is determined by these factors, in this order: 1) Size & influence 2) Effulgence, or brightness and 3) Speed of orbital motion. Mars is a special exception, being generally the loser, and creating havoc in the process. See my 40-page article on Graha Yuddha © 2003, Revised, updated & expanded © 2010. Includes 25 chart examples. Available at my website. www.edithhathaway.com Click on Articles.
 U.S. Dept. of Defense: July 29, 1947, 12:30 PM EDT, Washington, D.C. In 2010, the US is 4% of the world’s population, yet has a $700 billion military budget, more than that of most nations. With 28:34 Virgo Asc., Jupiter is in Libra, Saturn in Cancer. The U.S. Federal Reserve Bank: Dec. 13, 1913, 6:02 PM EST, Washington, D.C., 25:25 Gemini Asc., Jupiter is in Capricorn, Saturn in Taurus. Natal Sun at 8:53 Sagittarius falls within 6’ of the USA chart Ascendant.
 Canada’s chart for Feb. 18, 1961, set for Ottawa is discussed briefly under Chart #10 (Brazil).
 Though China’s economy is currently the 2nd largest in the world, with GDP having increased almost 100-fold over the last three decades, the average income is still less than 1/10th of that in the USA.
 See Nicholas Campion, The Book of World Horoscopes, 2004 edition, pp. 287-289.
 Recent statistics show Germany’s best economic performance since the 1990 reunification, “… with quarter-on-quarter economic growth at 2.2 %, and equivalent to a nearly 9% annual rate if growth were that robust all year…. German workers and companies in recent years made the short-term sacrifices necessary for long-term success that Germany’s European partners did not…. Germans steered clear of the debt-fuelled consumption boom that many believe contributed to the financial crisis.” Nicholas Kulish, The New York Times, “Defying Others, Germany Finds Economic Success,” Aug. 13, 2010.
 Julia Gillard became the first female Prime Minister of Australia on June 24, 2010. She was born Sept. 29, 1961 in Barry, Wales, UK. Her mother says “noon birth,” giving 2:42 Scorpio Asc., thus no angularity for Jupiter & Saturn. The strength of the conjunction is diminished, though there is a mutual exchange of signs: Natal Saturn is 29:55 Sagittarius (Vargottama), and Jupiter 4:03 Capricorn. Mars is in the 12th house in Libra. The Navamsa chart improves, with Saturn Vargottama in the 6th house, Jupiter in the 8th.
 See Jane Mayer’s article “Covert Operations” in the Aug. 30, 2010 issue of The New Yorker magazine, pp. 44-55. She reveals the extent to which the billionaire Koch brothers, David and Charles, are waging a war against Pres. Obama. Since the mid-1960s, they have persistently and lavishly funded think tanks and other operations that support their ideas and protect their profits, including opposing any environmental regulation of their industries, and any reports supporting climate science/change. The magnitude of their funding in this regard has become unprecedented, according to Mayer and other investigative reporters and organizations. Koch Industries is a conglomerate with annual revenues ca. $100 billion per year, including oil refineries and pipelines. “Their combined fortune of $35 billion is exceeded only by those of Bill Gates and Warren Buffett.”
 Donald Rumsfeld was born July 9, 1932, 17:40 CDT, Chicago, IL, USA. Scorpio rises, with Mars just setting. Natal Jupiter is in Leo, Saturn in Capricorn.
 Aspartame is a neurotoxin consisting of aspartic acid, phenylalanine, and methanol, and discovered by accident by a G.D. Searle scientist in 1964. No prevailing evidence establishes Aspartame’s safety, especially in everyday consumption. Aspartame and its amino acid isolates are implicated as one of the causes of neurodegenerative diseases such as ALS, Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, Multiple Sclerosis and seizures. Liquid forms of neurotoxins are far more rapidly absorbed, and thus are even more toxic.
 Tim Berners-Lee was born June 8, 1955, London, UK. Time is unknown, but this author believes the Moon should be in Sagittarius, where it resides throughout the day up to 22:05 local time. Jupiter and Saturn are both in their signs of exaltation. Bill Gates, founder of Microsoft was born Oct. 28, 1955, 21:15 PST, Seattle, Washington, USA, with Saturn exalted, and Jupiter in Leo. Berners-Lee always believed that the Internet should be royalty-free technology. He did not reap commensurate financial gains from his inventions, as did Gates.
[The author lectured on this topic at the World Conference on Mundane Astrology, Oct. 1-4, 2010 at Andhra University in Vishakhapatnam, India. Her article was published in Oct. 2010 in the first edition of the conference book, entitled The World Tomorrow: What They Say…, pp. 30-58.]
Copyright © 2010 By Edith Hathaway. All rights reserved.